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Nagaland is one of the eight states in the North Eastern Region (NER) of India, a biodiversity hotspot where climate change adaptation is of critical importance for the largely rural population. With a hilly terrain, low population density, shallow soils and high rainfall, farmers have adopted a shifting cultivation system known as jhum. This largely self-sufficient system has adequately met the various needs of rural communities, including food, fiber and energy, but is now getting disrupted due to shortening jhum cycles as a result of increasing population, focus on high value crops for cash income, soil fertility degradation and top soil erosion on account of decreased fallow cycles. Changing climate patterns is further exacerbating these disruptive trends.